The Republic of Komi
The Republic of Komi is located in the north-eastern extreme of the European part of Russia, within the boundaries of the Pechora and Mezen-Vychegda Lowlands, Mid- and Southern Timan, and the western slopes of the Ural Mountains (Northern, Pre-Polar and Polar Urals).
In the west, north-west and north, the Republic of Komi borders on Archangelsk Region and Nenets AO as its sub-area, in the east on Yamalo-Nenets AO and Khanty-Mansi AO as sub-areas of Tyumen Region, in the south-east – on Sverdlovsk Region, in the south – on Perm Territory, in the south-west – on Kirov Region. The republic’s total borderline length is
The distance between Moscow, the Russian capital, and Syktyvkar, the capital of the Republic of Komi, is
The territorial area of the Republic of Komi is 416,800 km2. The greatest length from the south-west to the north-east is
A considerable part of the territory is a hilly plain. The Ural Mountains serve as an eastern border, the Timan Ridge crosses the Republic from the north-west to the south-east. Between the Urals and the Timan, there is the Pechora Lowland, in the west – the Mezen-Vychegda Plain.
In terms of the Republic’s land stock, 74.6% is covered by forests and shrubs, 9.8% - swamps, 1.5% - water, and 1.0% - agricultural land. 20% of the entire land is used for reindeer grazing.
The location in the subarctic (in the extreme north and north-east) and moderate (in most of the territory) climatic zones causes the climate with long, rather severe winters and short, relatively cool summers. The average temperatures in the Republic of Komi in January are from minus 17.5 degrees in the south to minus 26.6 degrees in the northeast, in July - from plus 15.1 degrees in the south and up to plus 12.2 degrees in the northeast.
The territory of the Republic of Komi is a zone of excessive moisture. A significant predominance of rainfall over evaporation, the topography and geological structure cause increased wetlands and a developed drainage network.
The Republic is a multinational region: it is home to about 900,000 people in more than 100 nations and nationalities. Nationally, the Russians (65.1%) and the Komi (22.4%) prevail. The average age of the people is 37.6 years. 77% of the people live in urban areas and 23% are village residents.
Key historical dates
The territory of the present-day Republic of Komi began to be settled, presumably, around 300,000 years before. An indisputable evidence of the settlement area dates as far back as around 40,000 years ago. Since the 60s in the XIII c. the Komi land called "the Perm" and "the Pechora" was a part of the list of the Novgorod districts, and in 1478 the territory became an integral part of the Russian state. Since the XVI c., the Komi, together with the Russian, rendered habitable the Upper Vychegda area and the Mezen and the Pechora basins. The territory was divided into lands, districts and churchyards. With the establishment of the first provinces in 1708, the territories inhabited by the Komi, were incorporated into the counties of the Archangelsk and Vologda provinces. At the late XIX c. the present-day Komi territory was finally formed.
Since August 1921, Komi Autonomous Oblast was established as part of RSFSR making the Komi people, long estranged in terms of administrative-territorial basis, for the first time in its history was able to reunite as a national entity with single centralized management. Administratively, the province was divided into 4 large counties.
In 1936, Komi Autonomous Oblast was renamed as Komi Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic. On 29 August 1990, at the second extraordinary session the Supreme Council of Komi ASSR passed a declaration of state sovereignty of Komi ASSR. Later, on November 23 of the same year, the Republic was transformed into Komi Soviet Socialist Republic, and on 26 May 1992 Komi SSR became known as the Republic of Komi.
According to the Constitution of the Republic of Komi, adopted at the 18th extraordinary session of the Supreme Council of the Komi Republic of the 12-th convocation in 1994, “the Komi Republic (the State) is an equal subject of the Russian Federation".
The Komi Republic has full state power in its territory except for those powers in competence of the Russian Federation and the joint jurisdiction of the Russian Federation and the subjects of the Russian Federation.